The Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely-used affect scale. The PANAS-X is an extended PANAS version with subscales for discrete affects. Together with Dana Kotter-Grühn and Christina Röcke, we created a German version of the PANAS-X scales. Follow the link below to access the German translation of the PANAS-X!

PANAS-X German

When citing the German version, the appropriate citation is:
Grühn, D., Kotter-Grühn, D., & Röcke, C. (2010). Discrete affects across the adult lifespan: Evidence for multidimensionality and multidiretionality of affective experiences in young, middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Research in Personality,44, 492-500


The following link describes a research study employing the German Translation of the PANAS-X:


The following figure is drawn from the article, and displays “…estimated age patterns for discrete affects after controlling for sociodemographic and personality factors. Discrete affects are organized by their shape over the adult lifespan: Panel A presents affects with a U-shaped function; Panel B presents affects with a reversed U-shaped function; Panel C presents affects with a linear-decline pattern; and Panel D presents affects that show no association with age” (Grühn, D., Kotter-Grühn, D., & Röcke, C., 2010, pp. 497).